2013 Disability Status Report: United States

Table of Contents

The 2013 Annual Disability Status Report

The Annual Disability Status Reports provide policy makers, disability advocates, reporters, and the public with a summary of the most recent demographic and economic statistics on the non-institutionalized population with disabilities. They contain information on the population size and disability prevalence for various demographic subpopulations, as well as statistics related to employment, earnings, household income, veterans' service-connected disability and health insurance. Comparisons are made to people without disabilities and across disability types. Disability Status Reports and other statistics are available for the United States overall, each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico at www.disabilitystatistics.org.

The Status Reports primarily look at the working-age population because the employment gap between people with and without disabilities is a major focus of government programs and advocacy efforts. Employment is also a key factor in the social integration and economic self-sufficiency of working-age people with disabilities.

The information in this report is based on data from the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) – a survey sent each year to a random sample of over 3.5 million households. For more information see the Census Bureau's ACS website http://www.census.gov/acs/www/ and our Guide to Disability Statistics from the American Community Survey (2008 Forward): http://disabilitystatistics.org/sources.cfm.

The estimates in these reports are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual population values because of sampling variability and other factors. Differences observed between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant.

http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/methodology/content_test/SummaryResultsACS2006ContentTest.pdf

 

Suggested Citation

Erickson, W. Lee, C., & von Schrader, S. (2014). 2013 Disability Status Report: United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Yang Tan Institute (YTI).

We would like to thank Sara VanLooy, Jason Criss, and Joe Williams for their assistance with editing and production of this document.

ACS Disability Questions

There is no single accepted definition of disability. Different definitions and disability questions may identify different populations with disabilities and result in larger or smaller estimates.

Below are the six questions used in the ACS to identify persons with disabilities. Note that the Census Bureau refers to each of the individual types as "difficulty" while in this report the term "disability" is used.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-Care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?

Note:

  • The "Any Disability" category used in this report includes persons who reported one or more of the individual disability types.
  • Respondents could report more than one disability type.
  • Some disability questions were not asked of children.
  • A separate set of survey questions identify veterans with service-connected disabilities. Based on a separate set of survey questions, this report includes estimates related to veterans' service-connected disability
    (see page 51).

 

Notes

Spanish Language Reports: Spanish language versions of the Annual Disability Status Reports for the US, all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. can be downloaded at the same location as the English Status Reports. The Spanish translation was made possible through funding from the Northeast ADA Center and NIDRR.

Puerto Rico: A Puerto Rico Disability Status Report, based on the parallel 2013 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS), is available again this year in English as well as Spanish. However, please note that the Puerto Rico sample is not included in any U.S. population estimates included in these reports.

Group Quarters: In 2006, the ACS began surveying the group quarters population. We include the non-institutionalized group quarters population, but due to small state level sample sizes exclude the institutionalized group quarters population (see glossary) in the Disability Status Reports.

Margin of Error (MOE): As in previous years' reports we provide the 90% MOE to better illustrate sampling variability. See the glossary entry for more information on this topic.

Glossary: As in previous years, we provide a comprehensive glossary at the back of this report defining the terms used in the Disability Status Report (see glossary).

Note: According to the Census Bureau, estimates based on the ACS Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) file such as those included in this report may differ slightly from the ACS summary tables produced by the Census Bureau, because they are subject to additional sampling error and further data processing operations. Please see http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/faq.cfm#Q4 for further information.

United States Summary

These statistics indicate the social and economic status of non-institutionalized people with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS).

Age: In 2013, the prevalence of disability in the US was:

  • 12.6 percent for persons of all ages
  • 0.8 percent for persons ages 4 and under
  • 5.3 percent for persons ages 5 to 15
  • 5.6 percent for persons ages 16 to 20
  • 10.8 percent for persons ages 21 to 64
  • 25.8 percent for persons ages 65 to 74
  • 50.7 percent for persons ages 75+

Disability Type: In 2013, the prevalence of the six disability types among persons of all ages in the US was:

  • 2.3% reported a Visual Disability
  • 3.5% reported a Hearing Disability
  • 7.1% reported an Ambulatory Disability
  • 5.0% reported a Cognitive Disability
  • 2.7% reported a Self-Care Disability
  • 5.6% reported an Independent Living Disability

Gender: In 2013, 12.7 percent of females of all ages and 12.4 percent of males of all ages in the US reported a disability.

Hispanic/Latino: In 2013, the prevalence of disability among persons of all ages of Hispanic or Latino origin in the US was 8.7 percent.

Race: In the US in 2013, the prevalence of disability for working-age people (ages 21 to 64) was:

  • 10.7 percent among Whites
  • 14.1 percent among Black / African Americans
  • 4.6 percent among Asians
  • 18.4 percent among Native Americans
  • 10.1 percent among persons of some other race(s)

Employment: In 2013, the employment rate of working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the US was 34.5 percent.

Looking for Work: In the US in 2013, the percentage actively looking for work among people with disabilities who were not working was 10.5 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment: In the US in 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year was 21.5 percent.

Annual Earnings: In 2013, the median annual earnings of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in the US was $38,300.

Annual Household Income: In the US in 2013, the median annual income of households with working-age people with disabilities was $39,400.

Poverty: In the US in 2013, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities was 28.2 percent.

Supplemental Security Income: In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities receiving SSI payments in the US was 18.9 percent.

Educational Attainment: In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities in the US:

  • with only a high school diploma or equivalent was 34.2 percent
  • with only some college or an associate degree was 31.4 percent
  • with a bachelor's degree or more was 13.5 percent.

Veterans Service-Connected Disability: In 2013, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans with a VA determined Service-Connected Disability was 21.4 percent in the US.

Health Insurance Coverage: In 2013 in the US, 83.0 percent of working-age people with disabilities had health insurance.

Prevalence: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists percentages by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). The US disability prevalence rate for this population was 10.8%

Location 2013 (%) Location 2013 (%)
Alabama 14.9 Montana 12.2
Alaska 10.1 Nebraska 8.9
Arizona 10.2 Nevada 11.6
Arkansas 15.8 New Hampshire 10.4
California 8.5 New Jersey 8.2
Colorado 9.4 New Mexico 13.8
Connecticut 8.3 New York 9.0
Delaware 11.2 North Carolina 12.0
District of Columbia 8.8 North Dakota 8.2
Florida 10.6 Ohio 12.3
Georgia 11.3 Oklahoma 14.1
Hawaii 7.7 Oregon 13.1
Idaho 11.5 Pennsylvania 11.2
Illinois 9.2 Puerto Rico 18.4
Indiana 12.8 Rhode Island 10.3
Iowa 10.4 South Carolina 13.0
Kansas 10.6 South Dakota 11.6
Kentucky 16.1 Tennessee 14.4
Louisiana 13.4 Texas 10.4
Maine 14.9 Utah 8.9
Maryland 8.9 Vermont 11.3
Massachusetts 9.5 Virginia 9.3
Michigan 13.2 Washington 11.1
Minnesota 9.0 West Virginia 19.2
Mississippi 16.5 Wisconsin 10.5
Missouri 12.9 Wyoming 11.3

Employment: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists employment rates by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). The employment rate in the US for this population was 34.5% for people with disabilities and 76.8% for people without disabilities.

Location People with Disabilities 2013 People without Disabilities 2013 Location People with Disabilities 2013 People without Disabilities 2013
Alabama 27.2 73.3 Montana 36.0 77.5
Alaska 50.8 79.0 Nebraska 45.9 84.4
Arizona 33.5 73.2 Nevada 41.1 74.8
Arkansas 28.0 75.3 New Hampshire 40.5 82.1
California 32.8 73.8 New Jersey 37.5 77.1
Colorado 42.7 79.7 New Mexico 35.6 71.9
Connecticut 41.7 78.7 New York 32.6 75.9
Delaware 36.1 76.3 North Carolina 31.4 76.4
District of Columbia 32.8 76.9 North Dakota 56.0 85.5
Florida 30.8 74.6 Ohio 33.9 78.0
Georgia 32.4 74.7 Oklahoma 37.0 77.8
Hawaii 42.2 79.4 Oregon 35.3 75.7
Idaho 37.6 77.3 Pennsylvania 33.6 78.0
Illinois 37.0 77.4 Puerto Rico 22.5 56.3
Indiana 35.1 78.3 Rhode Island 34.6 79.5
Iowa 43.8 83.4 South Carolina 31.5 75.1
Kansas 42.3 81.1 South Dakota 49.1 84.6
Kentucky 27.6 75.2 Tennessee 30.2 76.3
Louisiana 31.9 75.0 Texas 38.8 77.1
Maine 32.1 81.0 Utah 42.2 77.5
Maryland 41.2 81.0 Vermont 34.6 82.1
Massachusetts 34.6 80.6 Virginia 36.8 79.7
Michigan 30.4 75.3 Washington 37.5 77.1
Minnesota 44.0 83.8 West Virginia 25.3 73.9
Mississippi 26.7 73.2 Wisconsin 41.7 81.7
Missouri 32.4 79.0 Wyoming 51.4 81.9

Prevalence

All Ages

Introduction

This section addresses the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability of all ages in the US was 12.6 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 39,187,600 of the 312,169,400 individuals of all ages in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 7.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 2.3 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in the United States in 2013*

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 12.6 0.05 39,187,600 153,440 312,169,400 3,059,393
Visual 2.3 0.02 7,327,800 70,060 312,169,400 3,059,393
Hearing 3.5 0.03 11,081,300 85,630 312,169,400 3,059,393
Ambulatory 7.1 0.04 20,639,200 115,020 292,489,900 2,891,851
Cognitive 5.0 0.03 14,637,400 97,850 292,489,900 2,891,851
Self-Care 2.7 0.02 7,775,300 72,120 292,489,900 2,891,851
Independent Living 5.6 0.04 14,005,400 95,810 251,136,500 2,510,282

* Note: Children under the age of five were only asked about Vision and Hearing disabilities. The Independent Living disability question was only asked of persons aged 16 years old and older.

Prevalence

Ages 4 years and under

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 4 and under in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). Only the two sensory disability questions were asked of this population. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a visual and/or hearing disability ages 0 to 4 in the US was 0.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 155,700 of the 19,679,600 children ages 0 to 4 in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, 0.5 percent reported a visual disability
  • In the US in 2013, 0.5 percent reported a hearing disability

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 4 and under in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 0.8 3.29 155,700 10,330 19,679,600 167,542
Visual 0.5 3.29 93,200 7,990 19,679,600 167,542
Hearing 0.5 3.29 100,800 8,310 19,679,600 167,542

Prevalence

Ages 5 to 15 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 5 to 15 in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a disability ages 5 to 15 in the US was 5.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 2,430,600 of the 45,475,100 individuals ages 5 to 15 in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the five types of disabilities* identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 4.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 0.6 percent.

Prevalence of disability* among non-institutionalized people ages 5 to 15 in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 5.3 0.09 2,430,600 40,670 45,475,100 421,214
Visual 0.9 3.29 388,600 16,320 45,475,100 421,214
Hearing 0.6 3.29 282,200 13,910 45,475,100 421,214
Ambulatory 0.6 3.29 283,100 13,930 45,475,100 421,214
Cognitive 4.1 0.08 1,855,300 35,570 45,475,100 421,214
Self-Care 0.9 3.29 429,600 17,150 45,475,100 421,214

* Note: The "Independent Living Disability" question was not asked of children ages 15 years and younger.

Prevalence

Ages 16 to 20 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 16 to 20 in the US was 5.6 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 1,221,000 of the 21,710,800 individuals ages 16 to 20 in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 3.9 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 0.6 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 5.6 0.13 1,221,000 28,880 21,710,800 209,514
Visual 1.0 3.29 212,500 12,070 21,710,800 209,514
Hearing 0.6 3.29 140,000 9,800 21,710,800 209,514
Ambulatory 0.8 3.29 171,300 10,840 21,710,800 209,514
Cognitive 3.9 0.11 850,700 24,120 21,710,800 209,514
Self-Care 0.7 3.29 152,900 10,240 21,710,800 209,514
Independent Living 2.0 3.29 432,100 17,200 21,710,800 209,514

Prevalence

Ages 21 to 64 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of working age people (ages 21 to 64) with a disability in the US was 10.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 19,618,200 of the 181,949,900 individuals ages 21 to 64 in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 5.6 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was "Self-Care Disability," 1.9 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 21 to 64 in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 10.8 0.06 19,618,200 112,340 181,949,900 1,742,887
Visual 2.0 0.03 3,667,200 49,860 181,949,900 1,742,887
Hearing 2.2 0.03 3,992,400 51,990 181,949,900 1,742,887
Ambulatory 5.6 0.04 10,111,000 81,930 181,949,900 1,742,887
Cognitive 4.4 0.04 7,948,200 72,900 181,949,900 1,742,887
Self-Care 1.9 3.29 3,521,100 48,870 181,949,900 1,742,887
Independent Living 3.7 0.04 6,811,600 67,610 181,949,900 1,742,887

Prevalence

Ages 65 to 74 years

Introduction

This section explores the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 65 to 74 in the US was 25.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 6,439,900 of the 24,950,800 individuals ages 65 to 74 in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 15.8 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 4.4 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 25.8 0.23 6,439,900 65,780 24,950,800 299,255
Visual 4.4 0.11 1,099,100 27,410 24,950,800 299,255
Hearing 9.5 0.15 2,366,100 40,130 24,950,800 299,255
Ambulatory 15.8 0.19 3,944,800 51,690 24,950,800 299,255
Cognitive 5.5 0.12 1,360,500 30,480 24,950,800 299,255
Self-Care 4.5 0.11 1,124,600 27,720 24,950,800 299,255
Independent Living 7.9 0.14 1,960,300 36,550 24,950,800 299,255

Prevalence

Ages 75 and Older

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 75 and older in the US was 50.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 9,322,200 of the 18,403,300 individuals ages 75 and older in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 33.3 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 10.1 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 50.7 0.31 9,322,200 78,770 18,403,300 218,981
Visual 10.1 0.18 1,867,200 35,680 18,403,300 218,981
Hearing 22.8 0.26 4,199,700 53,310 18,403,300 218,981
Ambulatory 33.3 0.29 6,129,000 64,200 18,403,300 218,981
Cognitive 14.3 0.21 2,622,800 42,240 18,403,300 218,981
Self-Care 13.8 0.21 2,547,200 41,630 18,403,300 218,981
Independent Living 25.6 0.27 4,714,000 56,430 18,403,300 218,981

Prevalence

Gender and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by gender and age group in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In the US in 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of males with a disability of all ages was 12.4 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 18,957,800 of the 152,884,200 males of all ages in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of females with a disability of all ages was 12.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 20,229,800 of the 159,285,200 females of all ages in the US reported one or more disabilities.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by gender and age group in the United States in 2013

Gender & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Males
Males: All Ages 12.4 0.07 18,957,800 110,550 152,884,200 1,480,933
Males: Ages 4 and under 0.8 3.29 83,000 7,540 10,061,800 85,580
Males: Ages 5-15 6.7 0.14 1,553,000 32,560 23,261,200 215,599
Males: Ages 16-20 6.4 0.19 703,300 21,940 11,065,600 106,126
Males: Ages 21-64 11.0 0.09 9,788,400 80,650 89,344,400 842,948
Males: Ages 65-74 27.2 0.34 3,172,900 46,410 11,662,800 140,048
Males: Ages 75+ 48.8 0.48 3,657,400 49,790 7,488,400 90,632
Females
Females: All Ages 12.7 0.07 20,229,800 113,960 159,285,200 1,578,460
Females: Ages 4 and under 0.8 3.29 72,800 7,060 9,617,800 81,962
Females: Ages 5-15 4.0 0.11 877,600 24,500 22,213,900 205,615
Females: Ages 16-20 4.9 0.17 517,800 18,830 10,645,200 103,388
Females: Ages 21-64 10.6 0.08 9,829,900 80,820 92,605,500 899,939
Females: Ages 65-74 24.6 0.31 3,267,000 47,090 13,287,900 159,207
Females: Ages 75+ 51.9 0.40 5,664,800 61,770 10,914,900 128,349

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence

Hispanic/Latino Origin and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by Hispanic/Latino origin and age group in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In the US in 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 8.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 4,652,500 of the 53,385,000 people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in the US reported one or more disabilities.
  • In the US in 2013, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 13.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2013, 34,535,100 of the 258,784,400 people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in the US reported one or more disabilities.

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children age 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by Hispanic / Latino origin and age group in the United States in 2013

Hispanic/Latino Origin & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Hispanic
Hispanic - All Ages 8.7 0.10 4,652,500 56,070 53,385,000 425,190
Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 0.9 3.29 45,100 5,560 5,052,800 35,824
Hispanic - Ages 5-15 5.0 0.17 545,900 19,330 10,833,600 86,355
Hispanic - Ages 16-20 5.1 0.27 238,000 12,770 4,651,500 38,026
Hispanic - Ages 21-64 8.5 0.13 2,516,200 41,370 29,609,900 232,169
Hispanic - Ages 65-74 30.5 0.86 599,300 20,250 1,962,100 19,638
Hispanic - Ages 75+ 55.5 1.15 708,100 22,010 1,275,100 13,178
Non-Hispanic
Non-Hispanic - All Ages 13.3 0.06 34,535,100 145,250 258,784,400 2,634,203
Non-Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 0.8 3.29 110,700 8,710 14,626,800 131,718
Non-Hispanic - Ages 5-15 5.4 0.10 1,884,700 35,840 34,641,500 334,859
Non-Hispanic - Ages 16-20 5.8 0.15 983,000 25,920 17,059,300 171,488
Non-Hispanic - Ages 21-64 11.2 0.07 17,102,100 105,330 152,340,000 1,510,718
Non-Hispanic - Ages 65-74 25.4 0.24 5,840,600 62,700 22,988,600 279,617
Non-Hispanic - Ages 75+ 50.3 0.32 8,614,000 75,810 17,128,300 205,803

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence

Race

Introduction

This section presents the disability prevalence rate among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race category in the US, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

In 2013, among working-age people in the US:

  • 10.7 percent of persons who were White reported a disability.
  • 14.1 percent of persons who were Black/African American reported a disability.
  • 18.4 percent of persons who were Native American reported a disability.
  • 4.6 percent of persons who were Asian reported a disability.
  • 10.1 percent of persons who were some other race(s) reported a disability.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race in the United States in 2013

Race Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
White 10.7 0.07 14,402,500 97,100 134,824,700 1,346,551
Black/African American 14.1 0.19 3,186,400 46,510 22,659,300 179,195
Native American or
Alaska Native
18.4 0.85 263,900 13,450 1,433,400 18,650
Asian 4.6 0.17 475,300 18,040 10,268,000 95,022
Some other race(s) 10.1 0.22 1,290,200 29,690 12,764,400 103,469

Employment

Introduction

This section examines the employment rates of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the employment rate of working-age people with disabilities in the US was 34.5 percent.
  • In 2013, the employment rate of working-age people without disabilities in the US was 76.8 percent.
  • The gap between the employment rates of working-age people with and without disabilities was 42.3 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest employment rate was for people with a "Hearing Disability," 51.0 percent. The lowest employment rate was for people with a "Self-Care Disability," 15.6 percent.

Employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 76.8 0.09 124,727,900 226,630 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 34.5 0.28 6,775,300 67,420 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 40.2 0.67 1,474,700 31,730 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 51.0 0.66 2,034,700 37,230 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 24.0 0.35 2,424,500 40,620 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 24.2 0.40 1,922,100 36,200 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 15.6 0.51 548,700 19,380 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 15.7 0.36 1,068,700 27,030 6,811,600 70,467

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

Introduction

This section focuses on the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States who are not working but actively looking for work, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013 in the US, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 10.5 percent.
  • In 2013 in the US, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 25.1 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage not working but actively looking for work between working-age people with and without disabilities was 14.6 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage of not working but actively looking for work was for people with a "Hearing Disability," 12.6 percent. The lowest percentage was for people with a "Self-Care Disability," 4.6 percent.

Percentage who are not working but actively looking for work among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 25.1 0.19 9,437,500 79,240 37,603,800 357,861
Any Disability 10.5 0.22 1,346,400 30,320 12,843,000 131,120
Visual 12.0 0.57 263,800 13,440 2,192,500 21,461
Hearing 12.6 0.62 246,300 12,990 1,957,700 20,109
Ambulatory 6.9 0.24 532,800 19,100 7,686,600 78,308
Cognitive 10.7 0.33 647,300 21,050 6,026,100 61,409
Self-Care 4.6 0.32 136,000 9,650 2,972,400 30,928
Independent Living 5.8 0.26 333,100 15,110 5,742,900 59,337

Full-Time / Full-Year Employment

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities working full-time/full-year in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in the US was 21.5 percent.
  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities working full-time/full-year in the US was 56.8 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage working full-time/full-year between working-age people with and without disabilities was 35.3 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 36.6 percent. The lowest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 7.2 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 56.8 0.10 92,133,200 211,590 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 21.5 0.24 4,225,200 53,470 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 26.4 0.60 968,600 25,730 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 36.6 0.63 1,461,000 31,580 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 14.7 0.29 1,484,600 31,830 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 11.5 0.30 911,200 24,960 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 8.5 0.39 299,700 14,330 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 7.2 0.26 490,600 18,330 6,811,600 70,467

Annual Earnings (Full-Time / Full-Year workers)

Introduction

This section examines the median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who work full-time/full-year in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the median earnings of working-age people with disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in the US was $38,300.
  • In 2013, the median earnings of working-age people without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in the US was $43,300.
  • The difference in the median earnings between working-age people with and without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year was $5,000.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest annual earnings was for people with "Hearing Disability," $43,300. The lowest annual earnings was for people with "Cognitive Disability," $32,200.

Median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) who work full-time/full-year by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Median Earnings MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $43,300 $120 92,133,000 875,543
Any Disability $38,300 $460 4,225,000 43,205
Visual $35,300 $860 969,000 9,627
Hearing $43,300 $820 1,461,000 15,365
Ambulatory $37,300 $690 1,485,000 14,977
Cognitive $32,200 $820 911,000 8,899
Self-Care $36,300 $1,640 300,000 2,884
Independent Living $34,300 $1,230 491,000 4,791

Annual Household Income

Introduction

This section illustrates the median annual income* of households that include any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the median income of households that include any working-age people with disabilities in the US was $39,400.
  • In 2013, the median income of households that do not include any working-age people with disabilities in the US was $62,000.
  • The difference in the median income between households including and not including working-age people with disabilities was $22,600.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest median income was for households including persons with a "Hearing Disability," $50,400. The lowest median income was for households containing persons with a "Cognitive Disability" $32,900.

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Median annual income* of households including any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Median H.H. Income MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $62,000 $210 79,524,000 789,292
Any Disability $39,400 370 15,526,000 165,214
Visual $36,500 780 3,119,000 32,110
Hearing $50,400 890 3,590,000 38,519
Ambulatory $34,500 450 8,536,000 90,477
Cognitive $32,900 520 6,227,000 65,601
Self-Care $33,300 750 2,950,000 31,340
Independent Living $34,300 560 5,484,000 59,488

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Poverty

Introduction

This section examines the poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities in the US was 28.2 percent.
  • In 2013, the poverty rate of working-age people without disabilities in the US was 12.5 percent.
  • The difference in the poverty rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 15.7 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest poverty rate was for people with "Cognitive Disability," 34.6 percent. The lowest poverty rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 20.6 percent.

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 12.5 0.08 20,123,900 134,990 161,616,500 1,531,068
Any Disability 28.2 0.32 5,521,500 72,430 19,588,600 199,458
Visual 30.0 0.74 1,098,100 32,530 3,661,800 35,932
Hearing 20.6 0.63 821,300 28,150 3,986,000 41,135
Ambulatory 30.7 0.45 3,100,300 54,490 10,104,000 102,697
Cognitive 34.6 0.53 2,746,200 51,310 7,931,500 80,058
Self-Care 32.8 0.78 1,154,100 33,350 3,519,300 36,397
Independent Living 32.8 0.56 2,231,600 46,290 6,808,900 70,425

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Introduction

This section focuses on the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary. Please note that these results will differ from official Social Security Administration reports for several reasons. For additional information, please email DisabilityStatistics@cornell.edu.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income payments in the US was 18.9 percent.
  • In 2013, the number of working-age people with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income payments in the US was 3,705,600.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage that received SSI was people with "Independent Living Disability," 29.5 percent. The lowest percentage that received SSI was people with "Hearing Disability," 11.8 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Any Disability 18.9 0.23 3,705,600 50,120 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 17.2 0.52 631,100 20,780 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 11.8 0.42 471,100 17,960 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 21.6 0.34 2,182,100 38,550 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 26.2 0.41 2,084,800 37,690 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 28.4 0.63 1,000,200 26,150 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 29.5 0.46 2,009,000 37,000 6,811,600 70,467

Education

High School Diploma/Equivalent

Introduction

This section explores the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in the US was 34.2 percent.
  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in the US was 25.4 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent between working-age people with and without disabilities was 8.8 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 36.5 percent. The lowest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Visual Disability," 31.9 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only a high school diploma or equivalent by disability status in the US in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 25.4 0.09 41,175,500 156,720 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 34.2 0.28 6,715,400 67,140 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 31.9 0.64 1,171,600 28,290 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 32.3 0.61 1,288,900 29,670 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 34.8 0.39 3,518,200 48,850 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 35.8 0.45 2,845,900 43,980 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 34.8 0.66 1,226,600 28,950 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 36.5 0.48 2,484,400 41,120 6,811,600 70,467

Education

Some College/Associate's Degree

Introduction

This section examines the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in the US was 31.4 percent.
  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in the US was 32.3 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree between working-age people with and without disabilities was 0.9 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree was for people with "Hearing Disability," 33.0 percent. The lowest percentage with only some college or Associate's degree was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 28.2 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only some college or an Associate's degree by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 32.3 0.10 52,434,400 173,190 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 31.4 0.27 6,151,800 64,320 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 30.4 0.63 1,113,800 27,590 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 33.0 0.62 1,316,700 29,990 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 31.6 0.38 3,197,900 46,590 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 28.7 0.42 2,279,900 39,400 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 29.1 0.63 1,026,300 26,490 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 28.2 0.45 1,922,300 36,200 6,811,600 70,467

Education

Bachelor's Degree or More

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in the US was 13.5 percent.
  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in the US was 32.1 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more between working-age people with and without disabilities was 18.6 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Hearing Disability," 17.1 percent. The lowest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 10.0 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with a Bachelor's degree or more by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 32.1 0.10 52,028,400 172,650 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 13.5 0.20 2,641,300 42,380 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 13.7 0.47 503,300 18,560 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 17.1 0.49 684,400 21,640 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 11.5 0.26 1,164,800 28,210 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 10.1 0.28 802,600 23,430 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 10.8 0.43 379,900 16,130 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 10.0 0.30 678,300 21,550 6,811,600 70,467

Veterans Service-Connected Disability Rating

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) civilian veterans reporting a service-connected disability rating in the United States. The 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) asks if the veteran has a service-connected disability, and if so, what their rating is (0-100%). A "service-connected" disability is one that has been determined by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as being a result of disease or injury incurred or aggravated during military service. Note that a veteran can receive disability compensation for a wide range of conditions, and a veteran with a service-connected disability may not report having one of the six ACS functional or activity limitation disabilities. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, there were 10,140,500 working-age civilian veterans in the US, of whom 2,166,800 had a VA service-connected disability.
  • In 2013, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans in the US with a VA service-connected disability was 21.4 percent.
  • In 2013, 550,300 working-age civilian veterans in the US had the most severe service-connected disability rating (70 percent or above).
  • In 2013, 25.4 percent of the working-age civilian veterans in the US who had a service connected disability had a service-connected disability rating of 70 percent or above.

Disability rating of working-age civilian veterans (ages 21 to 64) with a service-connected disability in the United States in 2013

Service–Connected Disability Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Has a service-connected disability rating (0-100%) 21.4 0.34 2,166,800 38,420 10,140,500 103,700
Disability rating of veterans with a service connected-disability
0 percent 5.6 0.41 120,900 9,100 2,166,800 22,637
10 or 20 percent 31.2 0.82 675,800 21,510 2,166,800 22,637
30 or 40 percent 19.3 0.70 417,900 16,920 2,166,800 22,637
50 or 60 percent 13.1 0.60 282,900 13,920 2,166,800 22,637
70 percent or higher 25.4 0.77 550,300 19,410 2,166,800 22,637
Rating not reported 5.5 0.41 118,900 9,030 2,166,800 22,637

Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the health insurance coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, 83.0 percent of working-age people with disabilities in the US had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • In 2013, 79.4 percent of working-age people without disabilities in the US had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • The difference in the health insurance coverage rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 3.6 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Self-Care Disability," 88.2 percent. The lowest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Visual Disability," 78.8 percent.

Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 79.4 0.08 128,919,600 228,820 162,331,700 1,542,890
Any Disability 83.0 0.22 16,280,000 102,910 19,618,200 199,997
Visual 78.8 0.56 2,891,300 44,330 3,667,200 36,026
Hearing 83.5 0.49 3,333,500 47,560 3,992,400 41,246
Ambulatory 85.2 0.29 8,615,100 75,810 10,111,000 102,813
Cognitive 83.7 0.34 6,648,900 66,810 7,948,200 80,369
Self-Care 88.2 0.45 3,104,500 45,920 3,521,100 36,431
Independent Living 87.5 0.33 5,959,600 63,330 6,811,600 70,467

Type of Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the type of health insurance coverage for non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in the United States, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS). Note that people can report more than one type of insurance coverage. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2013, 34.0 percent of working-age people with disabilities in the US reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2013, 62.9 percent of working-age people without disabilities in the US reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2013, 8.4 percent of working-age people with disabilities in the US reported purchasing health insurance coverage directly from an insurance company (by themselves or another family member).
  • In 2013, 24.2 percent of working-age people with disabilities in the US reported Medicare coverage and 36.5 percent reported Medicaid coverage (or other government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability).

Type of Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in the United States in 2013

Disability Status/ Insurance Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Any Disability
Uninsured 17.0 0.22 3,338,200 47,590 19,618,200 199,997
Employer/Union 34.0 0.28 6,669,900 66,920 19,618,200 199,997
Purchased 8.4 0.16 1,657,200 33,620 19,618,200 199,997
Medicare 24.2 0.25 4,755,500 56,680 19,618,200 199,997
Medicaid 36.5 0.28 7,154,700 69,250 19,618,200 199,997
Military/VA 7.3 0.15 1,424,600 31,190 19,618,200 199,997
Indian Health Service 0.7 3.29 141,700 9,860 19,618,200 199,997
No Disability
Uninsured 20.6 0.08 33,412,100 143,150 162,331,700 1,542,890
Employer/Union 62.9 0.10 102,180,000 217,780 162,331,700 1,542,890
Purchased 9.4 0.06 15,190,300 99,580 162,331,700 1,542,890
Medicare 1.5 3.29 2,449,600 40,830 162,331,700 1,542,890
Medicaid 7.7 0.05 12,432,000 90,500 162,331,700 1,542,890
Military/VA 3.4 0.04 5,501,900 60,890 162,331,700 1,542,890
Indian Health Service 0.4 3.29 675,000 21,490 162,331,700 1,542,890

Glossary

Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as ACTIVELY looking for work if he or she reports looking for work during the last four weeks.

Ambulatory Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

Base Population (Base Pop.)

The estimated number of individuals upon which the calculation is based. (For percentages, this is the denominator).

Cognitive Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

Disability and Disability Types

The ACS definition of disability is based on six questions. A person is coded as having a disability if he or she or a proxy respondent answers affirmatively for one or more of these six categories.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping?

Earnings

Earnings are defined as wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs including self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own nonfarm businesses or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships.

Education

Our definition is based on the responses to the question: "What is the highest degree or level of school this person has completed? If currently enrolled, mark the previous grade or highest degree received." Our category "high school diploma/equivalent" includes those marking the ACS option "Regular high school diploma — GED or alternative credential." Our category "Some college/Associate's degree" includes those marking the ACS options: some college credit, but less than 1 year of college credit; one or more years of college credit but no degree, or "Associate's degree (for example: AA, AS)." Our category "a Bachelor's or more" includes those marking the ACS options: "Bachelor's degree (for example: BA, BS)"; "Master's degree (for example: MA, MS, MEng, MEd, MSW, MBA)"; "Professional degree (for example: MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD)"; or "Doctorate degree (for example: PhD, EdD)." Note in 2008 changes were made to some of the response categories and the layout of this question.

Employment

A person is considered employed if he or she is either

  1. “at work”: those who did any work at all during the reference week as a paid employee (worked in his or her own business or profession, worked on his or her own farm, or worked 15 or more hours as an unpaid worker on a family farm or business) or
  2. “with a job but not at work”: had a job but temporarily did not work at that job during the reference week due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation or other personal reasons. The reference week is defined as the week preceding the date the questionnaire was completed.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment

A person is considered employed full-time/full-year if he or she worked 35 hours or more per week (full-time) and 50 or more weeks per year (full-year). The reference period is defined as the year preceding the date the questionnaire was completed. Note: this does not signify whether a person is eligible for fringe benefits. The question and response categories regarding weeks worked per year was changed in 2008.

Group Quarters (GQ)

A GQ is a place where people live or stay that is normally owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other. Group quarters include such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers' dormitories. See the definitions of institutional GQs and non-institutional GQs for more information. In addition, a description of the types of group quarters included in the 2008 ACS is located on the U.S. Census Bureau's Web site at www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/
2008_ACS_GQ_Definitions.pdf
.

Health Insurance Coverage

Is based on the following question: Is this person CURRENTLY covered by any of the following types of health insurance or health coverage plans? Mark "Yes" or "No" for EACH type of coverage in items a – h.

  1. Insurance through a current or former employer or union (of this person or another family member)
  2. Insurance purchased directly from an insurance company (by this person or another family member)
  3. Medicare, for people 65 and older, or people with certain disabilities
  4. Medicaid, Medical Assistance, or any kind of government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability
  5. VA (including those who have ever used or enrolled for VA health care)
  6. TRICARE or other military health care
  7. Indian Health Service
  8. Any other type of health insurance or health coverage plan – Specify (Note: “Other type” were recoded into one of the categories a-g by the Census Bureau)

Hearing Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?

Hispanic or Latino Origin

People of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who classify themselves in a specific Hispanic or Latino category in response to the question, "Is this person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino?" Specifically, those of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who are Cuban; Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano; Puerto Rican; or other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. Origin may be the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.

Household Income

Household Income is defined as the total income of a household including: wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs; self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own non-farm or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships; interest, dividends, net rental income, royalty income, or income from real estates and trusts; Social Security or Railroad Retirement; Supplemental Security Income; any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office; retirement, survivor or disability pensions; and any other regularly received income (e.g., Veterans' payments, unemployment compensation, child support or alimony). Median household income is calculated with the household as the unit of analysis, using household weights without adjusting for household size.

Independent Living Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or shopping?

Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities for people under formally authorized, supervised care or custody at the time of enumeration. Generally, restricted to the institution, under the care or supervision of trained staff, and classified as "patients" or "inmates." Includes: correctional, nursing, and in-patient hospice facilities, psychiatric hospitals, juvenile group homes and residential treatment centers.

Margin of Error (MOE)

Data, such as data from the American Community Survey, is based on a sample, and therefore statistics derived from this data are subject to sampling variability. The margin of error (MOE) is a measure of the degree of sampling variability. In a random sample, the degree of sampling variation is determined by the underlying variability of the phenomena being estimated (e.g., income) and the size of the sample (i.e., the number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic). The smaller the margin of error, the lower the sampling variability and the more "precise" the estimate. A margin of error is the difference between an estimate and its upper or lower confidence bounds. Confidence bounds are calculated by adding the MOE to the estimate (upper bound) and subtracting the MOE from the estimate (lower bound). All margins of error in this report are based on a 90 percent confidence level. This means that there is a 90% certainty that the actual value lies somewhere between the upper and lower confidence bounds.

Non-Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities that are not classified as institutional group quarters; such as college/university housing, group homes intended for adults, residential treatment facilities for adults, workers' group living quarters and Job Corps centers and religious group quarters.

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as not working but actively looking for work if he or she reports not being employed, but has been looking for work during the last four weeks.

Number

This term appears in the tables; it refers to estimated number of people in the category. (for percentages, this is the numerator).

Poverty

The poverty measure is computed based upon the standards defined in Directive 14 from the Office of Management and Budget. These standards use poverty thresholds created in 1982 and index these thresholds to 2008 dollars using poverty factors based upon the Consumer Price Index. They use the family as the income sharing unit and family income is the sum of total income from each family member living in the household. The poverty threshold depends upon the size of the family; the age of the householder; and the number of related children under the age of 18.

Race

Race categories are based on the question, "[w]hat is this person's race? Mark (X) one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be." Responses include the following: White; Black or African-American; American Indian or Alaska Native (print name of enrolled or principal tribe); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian (Print Race); Native Hawaiian; Guamanian or Chamarro; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander (Print Race Below); Some other race (print race below). "Other race" also contains people who report more than one race.

Sample Size

The number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic.

Self-care Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): 17c. Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

A person is defined as receiving SSI payments if he or she reports receiving (SSI) income in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Note: The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) does not apply to Puerto Rico. SSI is a federal cash assistance program that provides monthly payments to low-income aged, blind, or disabled persons in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Veteran Service-Connected Disability

A disease or injury determined to have occurred in or to have been aggravated by military service. A disability is evaluated according to the VA Schedule for Rating Disabilities in Title 38, CFR, and Part 4. Extent of disability is expressed as a percentage from 0% (for conditions that exist but are not disabling to a compensable degree) to 100%, in increments of 10%. This information was determined by the following two part question:

  1. Does this person have a VA service-connected disability rating?
    Yes (such as 0%, 10%, 20%, ... , 100%)
    No SKIP to question 28a
  2. What is this person’s service-connected disability rating?”
    Responses included: 0 percent; 10 or 20 percent; 30 or 40 percent; 50 or 60 percent; 70 percent or higher

Visual Disability

This disability type is based on the question:(asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?

About the Disability Status Reports

The Cornell University Disability Status Reports is produced and funded by the Yang Tan Institute at the Cornell University ILR School. This effort originated as a product of the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC) funded to the Yang Tan Institute in the ILR School at Cornell University by the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (grant No. H133B031111).

The contents of this report do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)).

 

Contact Us

K. Lisa Yang and Hock E. Tan
Institute on Employment and Disability
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14853
Phone: 607.255.7727
Email: disabilitystatistics@cornell.edu
Web: www.disabilitystatistics.org